???从2000年开始的《蓝色生死恋》的风靡,到2002年《冬季恋歌》奠定以电视剧为代表的韩流在亚洲乃至世界的地位,再到眼下引发高收视率的《爱的迫降》,20年来,韩国不断地用爱情为主题创制偶像剧,不但“喂养”本国观众,也让韩国以外的观众为主人公的爱情“同呼吸、共命运”。为何韩国的电视剧对于爱情的生产如此成功?它们是如何把握和提取爱情的“本质”,从而让不同文化背景的观众拥有相同的感受和体验?

? ?? From the popularity of Blue Life and Death, which began in 2000, to the popularity of Han Liu in Asia and the world, which was represented by TV series in 2002, to the popularity of "The Force of Love ",20 years, South Korea has been using love as the theme of the creation of idol drama, not only to" feed "the national audience, but also to let the audience outside South Korea for the hero's love" breath, common fate ". Why are Korean TV dramas so successful in producing love? How do they grasp and extract the "essence" of love, so that audiences of different cultural backgrounds have the same feelings and experiences?

  韩剧一大特点是善于制造“男神”,虽然也不断地出产“女神”,但基本上是流水的女神,铁打的男神。二十年来从宋承宪、张东健、元彬、权相佑、裴勇俊,到苏志燮、玄彬、李栋旭、孔刘、赵寅成,再到李敏镐、金秀贤、李钟硕、南柱赫、丁海寅……韩剧的男神迭代又共生,出产了从健硕男到花美男再到温柔男三代不同审美取向的“男神”。

Korean drama is a major feature is good at making \"male god \", although also constantly produce\" goddess \", but basically is the goddess of running water, iron hit the male god. For 20 years, from Song Chengxian, Zhang Dongjian, Yuan Bin, Quan Xiangyou, Pei Yongjun to Su Zhixie, Xuanbin, Li Dongxu, Kong Liu and Zhao Yincheng, to Li Minhao, Jin Xiuxian, Li Zhongshuo, Nanzhuhe, Ding Haiyin... The korean drama of the male gods and symbiosis, produced from Jian Shuo male to Hua Mei male to gentle male three generations of different aesthetic orientation of the \"male god.\"

  对于以女性为主要目标观众、以爱情为主要内容生产的韩国偶像剧而言,男神的生产有其必然的内在原因。但为何有些人较易成为他人心仪的对象或注意力的焦点?其中既涉及微观的个人互动层面上的喜恶,也涉及更宏观意义上的社会规范与预设标准。在这样的标准下,某些人就会比其他人更符合审美抉择。

For the Korean idol drama with female as the main target audience and love as the main content, the male god's production has its inherent reason. But why are some people more likely to be the object or focus of attention? It involves both the micro-level of personal interaction on the likes and dislikes, as well as a more macro-sense of social norms and preset standards. By such standards, some people will be more aesthetically appropriate than others.

  电视剧作为一种大众传播艺术无法展示“性”——这是两性爱情的生理或基因基础——但是可以展示其媒介化的表征:性感。于是生发爱情的第一条路径,便是对于性感的影视表征。性感成为一种资本,勾连了社会欲望的方方面面,极度商业化的韩剧依照这种理论塑造其爱情故事中的男主角。具体来说,主要有以下三种策略:

Television dramas as a mass-communication art cannot show \"sex \"- the physiological or genetic basis of love between men and women - but can show its media-oriented representation: sexiness. So the first path of love, is to sexy film and television representation. Sexiness becomes a kind of capital, connects every aspect of the social desire, the extremely commercial Korean drama molds its love story in accordance with this kind of theory. Specifically, there are three main strategies:

  其一,外貌体型与装扮。长相和身材是男神制造的基本门槛,于是我们看到《蓝色生死恋》中的宋承宪、《冬季恋歌》中的裴勇俊、《来自星星的你》中的金秀贤、《听见你的声音》中的李钟硕……每一个都是身材颀长、帅气俊美。加之在衣着、发型、妆容等方面,韩剧完全以高标准来形塑其外貌,以达到最符合大众审美的认知。

First, appearance and appearance. Looks and body are the basic threshold made by male gods, so we see Song Chengxian in \"Blue Life and death \", Pei Yongjun in\" Winter Love Song \", Jin Xiuxian in \"You from the Star\" and Li Zhongshuo in \"hearing your voice \". Each one is tall and handsome. In addition, in clothing, hair, makeup and other aspects, Korean drama completely to high standards to shape its appearance, to achieve the most in line with the public aesthetic cognition.

  其二,情感劳动和操演。韩剧中男神的“霸道”“暖”以及“撩”,是人际交往中对于富有魅力的男性的期待。这种期待既是习得,是朱迪斯·巴特勒所谓的操演,也可以被内化为布尔迪厄意义下的“第二天性”。编剧会使尽全力,用细节来增添这些操演,以增加男主角的魅力。

Second, emotional labor and performance. The \"overbearing \",\" warm\" and \"flirting\" of the male gods in the Korean drama are the expectations of attractive men in interpersonal communication. This expectation is both learned, what Judith Butler calls an exercise, and can be internalized as a \"second nature\" in the sense of Bourdieu. The screenwriter will do his best to add these exercises in detail to the charm of the leading actor.

  其三,身份与社会地位。社会身份和地位自带爱情产生过程中催化剂的作用,《继承者》中的李敏镐是富二代、《浪漫满屋》中的郑智薰是当红偶像、《秘密花园》中的玄彬是公司社长,而到《爱的迫降》中又化身为官二代……韩剧对于男神的身份和地位的设置,充分从人类主流社会对于爱情抉择的内在逻辑出发,各式帅气多金的“霸道总裁”式男主被塑造出来。而女性在此过程中,多半是作为“霸道总裁”的补充面而出现的。

Third, identity and social status. Social identity and status comes with the role of catalyst in the process of producing love. Li Minhao in \"The heir\" is the second generation of rich generation, Zheng Zhihuo in \"The Romantic Full House\" is the popular idol, Xuanbin in \"The Secret Garden\" is the company president, and in \"The Forced Landing of Love\" is embodied as the official second generation. The establishment of the status and status of the korean drama is based on the internal logic of love choice in the mainstream society. And women in the process, most of the \"domineering president\" as a complement to the appearance.

  没有一桩苍白而无趣的爱情故事会有听众。韩剧的爱情甚得个中滋味,于是在遵循基本的社会原则的基础上,不断变形出各种看似打破既有观念的恋爱,以求达到突破“禁忌”的戏剧效果,从而实现人们对于爱情的向往和想象的共情。其中或许有内容和逻辑上的谬误,然而人们往往因为获得了替代性满足而宽宥了这些谬误。一言而概之,被消费文化所熏陶出来的电视观众的审美趣味,无非是想要亲密关系的电视范本和情感沉浸的影像投射。逻辑、事实、理性抑或现实都不重要,共情才是王道。

No pale, uninteresting love story has an audience. The love of korean drama is very popular, so on the basis of following the basic social principles, constantly deformed all kinds of seemingly break the existing concept of love, in order to achieve a breakthrough \"taboo\" drama effect, so as to achieve people's yearning for love and imagination of empathy. There may be errors in content and logic, but people tend to forgive them for obtaining alternative satisfaction. In a word, the aesthetic taste of the TV audience influenced by the consumer culture is nothing more than the TV model of wanting intimate relationship and the image projection of emotional immersion. Logic, truth, reason or reality are not important, empathy is king.

  其一,虐心之恋。曾有人戏称韩剧有“三宝”:车祸、癌症和治不好。这是说韩剧通过男女主角间因为各种病症和意外而导致爱情的波折和磨难,在表现爱情的易逝和脆弱的同时,以有情人难成眷属来牵动观众的心。这充分概括了2000年代初期韩剧对于爱情生产的套路,比如早期韩剧的代表《蓝色生死恋》《冬季恋歌》《天国的阶梯》等无不如此。

First, the love of abuse. Someone once joked that korean dramas have \"three treasures \": car accidents, cancer and poor cures. This is to say that the korean drama through the hero and heroine because of various diseases and accidents and lead to the twists and turns of love and tribulations, in the expression of love is fleeting and fragile at the same time, with lovers difficult to get married to affect the hearts of the audience. This fully summed up the early 2000 korean drama for love production routine, such as the early korean drama on behalf of \"blue life and death love \",\" winter love song \",\" the steps of heaven\" and so on.

  其二,破壁之恋。打破人与人之间恋爱的边界,把想象力和传说、传奇等相结合来表征爱情,是韩剧的一个极大创举。于是在爱情的内核统领之下,韩剧既可以表现如《我的九尾狐女友》这样的人妖恋,也可以表现《蓝色大海的传说》这样的人兽恋;人鬼恋更是经典的品类,广为人知的就有《鬼怪》《阿娘使道传》《哦,我的鬼神君》等;除此之外,还有《河伯的新娘》是描写人神恋的,《来自星星的你》是和外星人谈恋爱,而到了《你也是人类吗》干脆和人工智能说爱谈情了。人与非人的恋爱,情感是共通的,但既有陌生化的效果,又有挑战的快感,不难想象韩剧的编剧因何不断进行此类创作。

Second, broken love. Breaking the boundary of love between people and combining imagination with legends and legends to represent love is a great innovation of Korean drama. Therefore, under the leadership of the core of love, korean drama can show such as \"my nine-tailed fox girlfriend\" such as human demon love, but also can show \"blue sea legend\" such as animal love; human ghost love is a classic category, widely known as \"ghost\" a nun \",\" oh, my ghost king,\" and so on; in addition,\" the bride of hebo \"is a description of the human god,\" you from the stars\" is an alien love, but to \"you are also human? People and non-human love, emotion is common, but both the effect of defamiliarization, but also the pleasure of challenge, it is not difficult to imagine why the Korean drama writers continue to create such.

  其三,多元之恋。近些年来,韩剧对于爱情的呈现,更多的是打破各种既定认知的方式来进行。比如跨越阶层的《龙八夷》,跨越男女年龄的《经常请吃饭的漂亮姐姐》《太阳的后裔》,甚至跨越性别,比如《咖啡王子一号店》《绿豆传》。某些韩剧甚至放弃了俊男美女的标配,比如《我的名字叫金三顺》以俊男配丑女。

Third, pluralistic love. In recent years, the Korean drama for the presentation of love, more is to break the various established cognitive ways to carry out. Such as the cross-class \"dragon eight Yi \", across the age of men and women\" often invited to eat beautiful sister \",\" descendants of the sun \", or even across the gender, such as \"coffee prince shop 1\",\" mung bean biography. Some korean dramas have even abandoned the standard for handsome men and women, such as \"my name is jin sanshun\" with handsome men and ugly women.

  可以看到,不断求新求变的韩剧在放弃悲情叙事的同时,也放弃了简单叙事,以更加广阔的社会背景融入爱情制造,从而使韩剧对于爱情的生产与对于受众心理的抓取同步。爱情是人类所有情感中最激烈也最繁复的一种。因为是爱情,人们对于电视剧变得极为苛刻;但又因为是爱情,人们对于电视剧变得极为宽容。不断揣摩社会心态的同时,又切合和引领社会脉搏与对爱情的想象和憧憬,这应该是韩剧对于“理想”或“难以企及”的爱情制造优于他国电视剧的爱情生产的重要原因。

It can be seen that the Korean drama, which is constantly seeking new and changing, gives up the sad narrative, but also gives up the simple narrative, and integrates into the love manufacturing with a broader social background, thus making the Korean drama's production of love synchronize with the grasp of the audience's psychology. Love is the most intense and complicated of all human emotions. Because it is love, people become extremely harsh on TV series, but also because it is love, people become extremely tolerant to TV series. At the same time, it should be the important reason why the Korean drama is better than the love production of other TV dramas for \"ideal\" or \"unattainable \".

  韩剧的聪明之处,也是其狡黠之处,也是其可怕之处,便是它总是把爱情设置为一种精神向往和鸦片,它只负责好的一面,让你上头,却绝不再进一步——揭示之后的结果并为之负责。电视剧中的爱情成为你午后的白日梦,若是你醒后怅然若失,总是还算清醒;怕的是你醉生梦死,完全落入大众文化对于爱情的打造,就难免不切实际,以至于对于生活中的另外一半,相看更厌。从这个角度而言,韩剧对于爱情的塑造,或者大众文化对于爱情的生产,真是如法兰克福学派的诸位学者所言,既廉价又极具危害性。

The cleverness of Korean drama, and its cunning, and its horror, is that it always sets love as a kind of spiritual yearning and opium, and it is only responsible for the good side, but it never goes any further - revealing the results later and being responsible for it. Love in the TV series becomes your afternoon daydream, if you wake up if lost, always quite sober; afraid that you are drunk, completely fall into the popular culture for the creation of love, will inevitably be impractical, so that for the other half of life, even more boring. From this point of view, the korean drama's shaping of love, or popular culture's production of love, is as the frankfurt scholars put it, cheap and extremely harmful.

  韩剧另外一个值得警醒的地方是,如同绝大部分带有商业创作取向的大众文化的生产一样,都把爱情限定在青年这一群体,于是韩剧中几乎不见中老年人的爱情。这样的爱情自然激烈,俊男美女自然赏心悦目,然而却也刻板、刻薄又现实。

Another cautionary note for korean dramas is that, like the vast majority of popular culture with a commercial orientation, love is confined to the youth group, so the love of the middle-aged and the elderly is almost invisible in korean dramas. Such love is naturally fierce, handsome men and women naturally pleasing to the eye, but also rigid, mean and realistic.

  不过,公允地讲,韩剧反映了人们对于爱情的普遍向往和追求,迎合了人们对于爱情的想象和憧憬,制造了爱情的幻想和白日梦,并不断地随着社会的发展用中产阶层的消费文化来塑造和包装这些爱情,三管齐下,牢牢攫取了电视观众的心,从而在至少亚洲范围之内获得了广泛的成功和认可。由此可见,爱情既是一种美好的情感,也是一种电视创作的核心元素,更是大众文化和消费文化造梦的机制。但也由此可见韩剧对于爱情的叙述和建构内在机理的老套,其叙事母题的传统。不过,对于忙碌、辛苦、一地鸡毛的现代人而言,从电视剧的白日梦中获得暂时的慰藉、满足和温暖和愉悦,似乎也无可厚非。

However, to be fair, korean drama reflects the general yearning and pursuit of love, caters to the imagination and vision of love, creates the fantasy and daydream of love, and continues to shape and package these love with the consumption culture of the middle class as the society develops. Thus it can be seen that love is not only a beautiful emotion, but also a core element of television creation, but also a mechanism for creating dreams of mass culture and consumer culture. However, it can also be seen that the Korean drama's narration of love and the construction of the internal mechanism of the cliche, its narrative motif tradition. However, for the busy, hard-working, chicken-haired modern, the temporary solace, satisfaction and warmth and pleasure from the daydreams of the TV series seem to be beyond reproach.


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