澳大利亚多地发生的严重林火灾害已持续数月,最新统计显示目前澳全国着火点仍有上百处。澳大利亚1月6日宣布将设立新机构协调救灾和重建工作,以回应国内舆论对政府救灾不力的批评。

Severe forest fires in many parts of Australia have been going on for months, and the latest statistics show there are still hundreds of flashpoints across Australia. Australia announced on january 6th that it would set up a new body to coordinate relief and reconstruction efforts in response to criticism of the government's disaster relief.

  澳大利亚总理莫里森日前表示,近几个月来在该国四处蔓延的林火已经造成至少24人遇难。截至目前,这场大火过火面积约600万公顷。干旱和高温是造成此次林火蔓延的重要原因,但政府反应迟缓、应对不力广遭当地民众批评。

At least 24 people have been killed in forest fires that have spread across the country in recent months, Australian Prime Minister Alison Morrison has said. So far, the fire has been burning about 6 million hectares. Droughts and high temperatures have contributed to the fire, but the government has been criticized for its slow response and poor response.

  2019年9月6日,澳大利亚新南威尔士州北部地区发生了第一场山火。大多数人没能料想到,这仅仅只是个开始。据当地媒体报道,截至去年12月底,仅在新南威尔士州和昆士兰州,就相继发生超过140起森林火灾。

September 6,2019- Australia's first bushfire in northern NSW. Most people don't expect it to be just the beginning. As of the end of December, there were more than 140 forest fires in New South Wales and Queensland alone, according to local media.

  数月以来,从经济最发达、人口最稠密的东南部沿海地区,到塔斯马尼亚、西澳洲和北领地,澳大利亚几乎每个州都有林火在燃烧。截至目前,林火灾害造成近2000栋民居被烧毁。

For months, there have been forest fires burning in almost every state in Australia, from the most economically developed and densely populated southeastern coast to Tasmania, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Up to now, nearly 2000 houses have been burnt down as a result of the forest fire disaster.

  这场持续了数月的林火,成为澳大利亚有史以来最严重的火灾,给生活在广袤森林里的动物们带来了灭绝性灾难。澳大利亚生态学家估计,去年9月以来,仅新南威尔士州就有至少亿只野生动物葬身火海,它们包括哺乳动物、鸟类和爬行动物等。澳环境部门估计,数千只澳大利亚国宝级动物考拉因林火死亡。澳其他各州因森林大火丧生的动物数字尚不清楚,但专家估计,在大火中丧生的动物可能达到10亿只。

The forest fire, which lasted for months, became Australia's worst-ever fire, bringing extinction disaster to animals living in vast forests. Australian ecologists estimate that at least 100 million wild animals have been buried in flames in NSW alone since September, including mammals, birds and reptiles. Australia's environmental department estimates that thousands of Australian national treasure-rated koalas have died from forest fires. The number of animals killed by forest fires in other Australian states is unclear, but experts estimate that the number of animals killed in the blaze could reach 1 billion.

  根据相关组织的统计,澳大利亚持续数月的森林大火释放亿吨二氧化碳,而吸收这些二氧化碳需要一个世纪或更长时间。

Australia's months-long forest fires have released billions of tons of carbon dioxide, and it will take a century or more to absorb it, according to the group.

  林火肆虐还造成严重空气污染。悉尼、堪培拉、墨尔本等城市持续被烟霾笼罩,空气质量数据在最糟糕时超过官方确定的“危险”级别十数倍。当地民众被迫减少户外活动,口罩销售一空,日常生活受到很大影响。

The forest fire also caused serious air pollution. Cities such as Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne continued to be shrouded in haze, with air quality data several times more than the official'dangerous'level at its worst. Local people were forced to reduce outdoor activities, masks sold out, and daily life was greatly affected.

  由于地理和气候等因素,澳大利亚每年7月会进入森林火灾高发季。去年8月下旬,澳大利亚林火及自然灾害合作研究中心发布了《澳大利亚季节性林火展望》报告,提醒2019年林火季森林火险可能具有毁灭性。但这份报告并未引起足够的重视。该机构首席执行官理查德·桑顿对媒体表示,“气候变化引发的极端干旱日益严重,我们和消防部门都已经提前作出预警,2019年森林火险可能达到毁灭性级别”。

Due to geography and climate, Australia enters the high forest fire season every July. In late August last year, the Australian Centre for Cooperative Research on Forest Fire and Natural Disasters released the Australian Seasonal Forest Fire Outlook report, warning that forest fire risk in the 2019 season could be devastating. But the report has not received enough attention. Richard Thornton, the agency's chief executive, told the media that \"the extreme drought caused by climate change is becoming more serious, and we and the fire department have given early warning that forest fire risk could reach a devastating level in 2019.\"

  气象学家认为,2019年这场史无前例的林火和2018年的极端干旱,都证明澳大利亚已经成了全球气候变暖的受害者。据澳气象局统计,自1910年以来,澳大利亚平均地面气温已上升约1摄氏度。自20世纪50年代以来,该国每个10年的气温与上个10年相比都呈上升趋势。

Meteorologists believe the unprecedented forest fire in 2019 and the extreme drought in 2018 all prove that Australia has become a victim of global warming. Australia's average surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Celsius since 1910, according to the Australian Meteorological Agency. Since the 1950s, temperatures have been on the rise for every 10 years in the country compared to the previous decade.

  塔斯马尼亚大学自然科学院火灾研究中心主任戴维·鲍曼分析称,数月来澳各地出现的林火规模之大前所未有,这和全球气候变暖相吻合。在2019年的林火季,大风和高温干燥天气等多种极端天气同时出现,并伴随如此大规模的林火频繁发生,已经显示出澳大利亚的气候模式发生了变化。鲍曼警告说,“我们已经没有时间去适应气候变化引发的林火。澳政府气候政策的失败将导致灾难不断升级。”

David Bowman, director of the Centre for Fire Research at the University of Tasmania's Academy of Natural Sciences, analyzed the unprecedented amount of forest fires that have appeared across Australia for months, matching global warming. During the 2019 bushfire season, multiple extremes such as high winds and high-temperature dry weather occur at the same time and are accompanied by such a large number of forest fires that have shown a change in Australia's climate pattern. \"We don't have time to adapt to the forest fires caused by climate change,\" Bowman warned. The failure of Australia's government's climate policy will lead to an escalating disaster.

  悉尼大学商学院教授汉斯·杭智科在接受人民日报记者采访时表示,“令民众最失望的是,当局无视全球气候变暖,对防范林火等自然灾害缺乏长期战略”。

\"To the greatest disappointment of all, the authorities ignore global warming and lack a long-term strategy to prevent natural disasters such as forest fires,\" University of Sydney Business School professor Hans Hangzhike told People's Daily.

  有当地媒体认为,避谈气候变暖是澳大利亚政府错误的政策选择。专家认为,澳大利亚现政府在气候变化问题上的保守立场,有其深刻的经济因素。煤炭、石油、天然气等能源行业在澳大利亚经济中扮演重要角色,澳政府一直拒绝压缩煤炭产业规模的改革建议,相关利益集团一直在游说澳政府否认气候变化的影响。目前,澳政府不承认澳林火危机的加重和全球气候变暖之间存在直接关联。

Some local media believe that avoiding climate change is the wrong policy choice for the Australian government. Experts believe that Australia's current government's conservative stance on climate change has deep economic factors. Energy sectors such as coal, oil and gas play an important role in the Australian economy, and the Australian government has rejected proposals to reduce the size of the coal industry and interest groups have been lobbying the Australian government to deny the impact of climate change. Currently, the Australian government does not recognize the direct link between the exacerbation of the fire crisis and global warming.

  专家指出,澳大利亚联邦政府明显低估了这次林火的规模,救灾工作反应迟缓,且在很长一段时间内缺乏统筹协调。目前,澳国内围绕林火的政治性争论和质疑声日渐高涨,政府应对不力广遭当地民众批评。

Experts say the Australian federal government has clearly underestimated the scale of the fire, has been slow to respond and has for a long time lacked co-ordination. The government has been widely criticised for its weak response to growing political debate and questions over the bush fires in australia.

  此次林火发生后,一直有来自一线的消防员提醒,去年林火季来得早、范围广,需要倍加重视。但这些意见未被当局采纳。据报道,从2016年起,澳大利亚应急部门就要求获得更多资源,澳国家空中消防中心专门请求每年增加1100万澳元(1美元约合澳元)经费拨付,以用于租赁大型消防飞机,组建一个大型灭火飞机队伍,但这项申请迟迟得不到批复。与此同时,联邦政府对他们的资助额度比2003年减少了一半以上。有些地方的消防员甚至要靠众筹来购买基本消防设备。

After the forest fire, has been from the front line of firefighters reminded that last year the forest fire season came early, wide range, need to pay more attention to. However, these observations were not adopted by the authorities. Since 2016, Australia's emergency department has reportedly requested more resources, and the Australian National Air Fire Centre has specifically requested an additional $11 million ($1 in Australian dollars) a year to rent large fire fighters and form a team of large fire fighters, but the application has been delayed. Meanwhile, the federal government has more than halved its funding for them from 2003. In some places, firefighters have to rely on the crowd to buy basic fire fighting equipment.

  除了澳政府对林火灾情的误判,此次林火肆虐的另一个重要原因是联邦与地方政府的协调分工不力。根据澳大利亚法律规定,州和领地政府对林火等自然灾害负有主要责任。正常情况下,如果地方政府未提出请求,联邦政府不会提供额外的支援。而事实上,去年林火的规模早已超出了州一级政府所能应对的范围,亟待加强联邦层面的统筹协调。

Aside from the Australian government's misjudgment of the forest fire disaster, another important reason for this fire is the weak division of labor between the federal and local governments. Under Australian law, state and territorial governments are primarily responsible for natural disasters such as forest fires. Normally, if the local government does not request, the federal government will not provide additional support. In fact, the scale of last year's forest fires was well beyond the state-level government's capacity to respond, and it is urgent to strengthen coordination at the federal level.

  澳前总理陆克文在媒体撰文批评说,“政府在林火危机上表现出推脱和不冷不热,救灾工作反应迟缓”。澳前总理特恩布尔此前建议政府,要在全国范围内协调消防工作。他表示,目前的火情已经是国家安全问题,协调消防工作应由联邦政府发挥牵头作用,但澳现政府拒绝采纳这一建议。

Former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd wrote in media criticism that \"the government has shown a lack of impetus and lukewarm response to the forest fire crisis. Former Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has previously advised the government to coordinate fire fighting across the country. He said the current fire is already a national security issue, coordination of fire work should be led by the federal government, but the Australian government refused to adopt the proposal.

  在澳大利亚,乡村消防局是扑灭林火的中坚力量,主要成员是志愿消防员,他们人数远超职业消防员。以新南威尔士州为例,去年12月参与灭火的2700名消防人员中大部分都是志愿消防员。然而,他们不能从消防部门领任何补贴。他们在执行任务期间,其雇主要照付工资,但去年林火季尤其漫长,一些小企业主很难让员工工作与救火两不误。民众呼吁澳大利亚联邦政府为这些志愿消防员发放补贴,但遭到拒绝。

In Australia, the country fire department is the backbone of putting out the forest fire, the main members are volunteer firefighters, they are far more than professional firefighters. In New South Wales, for example, most of the 2,700 firefighters involved in fighting the blaze in December were volunteer firefighters. However, they cannot receive any subsidies from the fire department. Their employers pay their salaries during the mission, but last year's bush season was especially long, and it was hard for some small business owners to keep their employees working and fighting the fire. The federal government has been called on to grant subsidies to volunteer firefighters, but has been rejected.

  在舆论重压之下,澳政府本月6日宣布设立一个负责救灾和重建工作的新机构,并承诺将为救灾先期拨款20亿澳元。政府还同意给志愿消防员发放最多6000澳元的补贴,给国家空中消防中心拨款1100万澳元。此外,澳军方组织了由近3000名预备役军人组成的救灾队伍,这是该国历史上首次动员预备役军人参与林火救灾。(刘天亮)

Under the weight of public opinion, the Australian government announced the establishment of a new agency responsible for disaster relief and reconstruction on June 6 and promised to allocate A $2 billion in advance for relief efforts. The government also agreed to grant up to $6,000 in subsidies to volunteer firefighters and $11 million to the National Air Fire Centre. In addition, the Australian military organized a relief team of nearly 3,000 reservists, the first time in the country's history to mobilize reservists to participate in the forest fire relief. (T.L. Lau)


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